History of the press, radio and television

When the media forms created? When advertising first appear? Who owns the media?

creation of different types of media

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newspapers and magazines ~ 1880

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Movies ~ 1910

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Television ~ 1945

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Cable Television ~ 1980

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TV Internet, digital communication ~ end of 20 . century

in 1920, radio was first developed, primarily in the military, the media strictly sendingHistory – Old Radios messages from one place to another. David Sternoff, the then president of RCA, first had the idea to sell radios to consumers and the then so-called radio receiver. However, consumers need to have a reason to buy radios, so RCA was the first to set up radio stations across the country. 1920 and 1922, 400 radio stations have been established, ranging KBKA Pittsburgh. Stations also established universities, newspapers, police, hotels, and trade unions.

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The year 1923 was 600 radio stations across the United States and $ 83 million worth of stock was sold.

is the biggest difference before and after 1923 was that the first advertisement is not heard on the radio until 1923 RCA then made the four companies of the radio

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AT & T

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General Electric

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United Fruit

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Westinghouse

[19459002was] United Fruit is one of the first global companies, and one of the first to advertise on the radio. AT & T division of RCA first thought about selling time on the air to the companies that marked the beginning of "toll broadcasting." WEAF station was the first work that way, which is widespread outrage and accusations of "polluting the airwaves."

Because of this controversy, the practice of selling advertising time was called "trade name in public." Sponsors linked their names to a program on the air, but also advertising a particular product in a 30-second "commercial" as we know it today.

Why did AT & T decide to experiment with charging companies for air time?

AT & T does not make money during the mediation because it has only taxes, not customers. Just made money when new radio stations bought the equipment necessary to broadcast. No money in consumers buying radios.

AT & T also began the practice of paying performers of their time in the air, and not just the volunteers, which is common practice in the radio up until this point.

first radio network

1926 RCA created the first radio network, NBC. It was decided that more effective and efficient to produce shows in New York and connects the main transmitter stations across the country, connected to the AT & T (another RCA company) phone line. (Now television networks are linked by satellite to their affiliates).

This was the beginning of the network system partners. The ideal network ensures everyone in the country is able to listen to the signal. NBC was a time of two philosophies:

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Radio content was a "public service" whose job was to sell radios.

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Radio content was designed to generate income through advertising.

The history of the media in 1927, the second network is formed. It was started by William Paley of CBS. Paley was the first person to think that networks are strictly advertising to make money, not to engage in selling radios. Like AT & T, CBS did not make radios. From the start, their money selling advertising.

The rising of radio networks caused the Radio Act of 1927 to be transferred, which established the FRC, or what is now known as the FCC, to allocate broadcast licenses. The need for such an organization brought up the fact that radio spectrum is a limited resource, and broadcasting itself is a scarce. In the 1930s, the structure was set by the commercial radio format, although advertising is not dominated radio like it would television later.

The 1920s and '30s, radio programs were divided into two groups. Sponsored shows, which had advertisers, and unsponsored shows, which is not. Shows the radio station paid unsponsored. The sponsored programs, on the other hand have been created entirely by the company sponsoring the show;. advertisers were fully responsible for the content of the radio station content became advertising radio precedent for television, the same firm that controlled radio went early to control the television

No.. soon after, television inherited the structure of the radio. the 'monopoly over 40s, the rise of television, RCA also held all televisions sold. By 1945-1955, advertising has taken over all of television. Television was organized around the premise of selling things. The entire television industry was creating the political climate of suspicion and fear. Senator Joseph McCarthy, the founder of McCarthyism, which is based on the fear of communism and Huaca (Un-American Activities Committee, he began to question people involved in television beliefs and associations.

What affected television in its early stages ?

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Politics (McCarthyism / Huaca)

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Blacklist. almost from the beginning to television, many writers, actors and directors held pro- communist and / or non-American.

certain themes were completely off-limits at the time of television, especially in matters of race relations in the 1960s. Overall, the networks were not satisfied with the political situation on television 1960, both the black list, and the fact that, when every show was a sponsor, the sponsor controlled the entire program. networks advantageous to control moving through the program's sponsors / advertisers, where networks would retain control of the programming between shows, and advertisers would buy time.

in the 1950s, the network decided to eliminate the practice of regulating sponsors it indicates a move that spot from selling or advertising the programs as we know it today. What caused the move to an immediate sale?

first

Discovery fraud quiz shows on television. Quizzes are extremely popular at the time, and I liked the networks, sponsors and spectators alike. However, it appears that the competitions are largely fixed. Charles Van Doren in "21" became a huge star in his repeated wins, until it turned out that the whole thing could have been fixed. In the case of "The $ 64,000 question," the owner of Revlon personally hand-selecting the winners and losers of the show.

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That they are financially difficult to support only one advertiser throughout the show.

Around the same time came the inception of ratings to measure a show's popularity. Reviews, quite simply, measured by the number of people watching the show. To understand why the reviews are so important, it is important to understand that the television industry operates three questions and their answers:

first

Who owns television? [The networks]

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What is sold on television? [Viewer’s time, not television shows]

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Who are the customers of television? [Advertisers, not viewers]

This may be a counterintuitive concept for some. The network, which own television, the media areHistory – Old television shows buyers, not sellers. On the other hand, they are sold to the eyeballs, so to speak, to advertisers. Networks want the maximum benefits from buying and selling time, both the audience time, and advertisers' time.

The primary measure television ratings, which determine the price that bought and sold by AC Nielsen in time , an independent company that provides information on who is looking at what's on television. we have used about 4,000 households that represent the national viewing television. in 1980, only 1,200 households were used. Some households have an electronic device installed on the television, which keeps track of what to watch, while others log on viewing habits.

determination are two measures of the show audience. one of the rating, while the other shares.

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Rating: percentage of homes televisions tuned to a given show

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Share. The percentage of viewing at a given time who are tuned to a given show.

the value is always higher than the rating. Ratings are more important for advertisers, and share is much more important to the networks.

Example:

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Total households with televisions: 150000000

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Total households watching television at 20:00 on Monday nights: 90000000

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Total households watching American Idol to 8:00 Monday evenings: 45000000

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thus: Rating: 30 share: 50

it is important to note that many factors skew the results. Shows cost producers more than the networks usually pay them these shows. The road to the producers that making money on the network to renew the show, in order to have a shot of money from syndication on other channels also knows the reruns. This is the case when the individual stations (say, for example, the ABC affiliate in Miami wants to carry Seinfeld), to buy the rights to the show's producers to show. It shows that last only a season, most will lose millions of dollars. One of the key factors that show will be renewed or not the rating.

This brings us to how it can be based on skewed. For example, if 20 is a part of the show, and you need a 25 stake in a new season, what can manufacturers do? In principle, you have to win another 5% of the people watching television when the show to watch the show, is not an easy task, as that involves convincing millions of people. However, as the ratings for the 4000 Nielsen households relying on, this means that they can convince just 200 Nielsen households watch the show, which would increase the share of 20 to 25. This is why Nielsen households must be kept absolutely secret networks. When the Nielsen households have been leaked to the network, one of the ways of the people they have got to watch the show offers viewers a bit of money by filling out a survey of the trade, which they said would only play during a particular show. Since it had to watch that channel while in the program, it would raise the share.

Once established on the basis of advertising rates for the two factors

* The size of the audience.

* demographic (income, age, gender, occupation, etc.) to the public.

Briefly, the job of television is to gather today as a product that will sell to advertisers. Programs to support the advertising, delivering viewers to buy the best possible state of mind when the time comes to advertising, which brings us to the Golden Age of Television.

The 1950 is considered the "Golden Age of Television." During this time, which he called "an anthology series" where different actors each week took part in history won the show's media – I Love Lucypopularity across the board … that is, everyone except for advertisers. The anthology series format was not appropriate for advertisers, since such issues are involved in the psychological conflicts that do not leave the audience in the proper state of mind to buy the products they presented a program of inter-stage. The theme of the anthology series was the type that undermined the ads, it almost seems that they are false.

This raised the question as to what the network executives actually want to do shows? The answer is not to watch a program, which makes them feel good, make them laugh, or excites them, but watch the television for a specified period. With so many new programs are proposed, standards began to intentionally or unintentionally, laid out what he could and could not do shows. Risks can be taken only at the beginning and / or end of shows. Laugh tracks were conceived to tell the audience when to laugh. Applications began to be tested in front of the public television and / or radio. Show writers now had to write shows that test as well.

Of course, this caused a lot of the same elements and themes appear in all shows. This was the beginning of recombinant television culture, where the same elements is infinitely repeated, recombinant, and mixed.

The same culture is what perpetuated the idea that people watch television, non-specific shows. While people certainly choose to watch certain shows instead of others, people are less often choose to watch TV instead of other things. People watch television. Regardless of what it was in the television viewing rate is extremely stable.

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